Perkembangan Doktrin Strategi Militer India dalam Menghadapi Musuh pada Dua Arah

•May 6, 2013 • 1 Comment

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Sumber Photo: http://www.philosophicalanthropology.net/2012/05/india-pakistan-and-china-all-pals.html

Baru-baru ini, Foreign Policy online mengeluarkan sebuah artikel berjudul The Most Dangerous Border in the World yang ditulis oleh Ely Ratner dan Alexander Sulivan. Di dalam artikel tersebut dituliskan bahwa China mencoba untuk merangsek ke daerah Line of Actual Control (wilayah perbatasan India-China). Artikel tersebut menjelaskan beberapa alasan melatarbelakangi ketegangan tersebut; yaitu komplain China terhadap penampungan pengungsi Tibet yang diberikan oleh pemerintah India (di daerah Dharamshala) dan respon terhadap pemerintahan Tibet di pengasingan yang melancarkan agenda disintegrasi China. Di sisi lain, India cemas oleh rencana China untuk membangun bendungan di sungai Brahmaputra, yang berasal dari Tibet tapi mengalir ke India, dimana puluhan juta orang menggantungkan hidupnya.  Ketegangan yang terus menerus ini bukan tidak mungkin menghasilkan kulminasi, melihat China yang seringkali melakukan proxy war dengan menggunakan Pakistan saat menghadapi India. Dan India bersiap untuk menghadapi sebuah perang dari dua arah. Tulisan ini menjelaskan tentang bagaimana perkembangan doktrin terjadi di dalam tubuh militer India dalam menghadapi musuh pada dua arah.

Perkembangan struktur kekuatan militer dan perubahan pola penyebaran tentara berikut peralatan perang dari dua arah perbatasan – China dan Pakistan – telah menghasilkan perkembangan/evolusi doktrin perang bagi ahli strategi militer India. Pasca perang Kargil (1999), perencana militer India tersadar dan mulai mendiskusikan berbagai cara dan alat untuk persiapan perang di daerah teritorial musuh. Terdapat sebuah keyakinan yang kuat dari tokoh-tokoh kunci pertahanan India terhadap kemungkinan adanya perang dua arah, dimana Pakistan dan China berkolaborasi untuk menyerang India secara bersamaan.

Dalam konteks tiga negara, yang kesemuanya memiliki misil balistik berbahan nuklir (nuclear tipped ballistic missiles) yang dapat digunakan pada dua arah, India mencoba untuk meningkatkan persepsi terhadap ancaman dari dua arah, yang karenanya tentara India berada dalam perdebatan serius perihal bagaimana cara mengatasi serangan dari dua arah secara bersamaan.

Continue reading ‘Perkembangan Doktrin Strategi Militer India dalam Menghadapi Musuh pada Dua Arah’

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Field Trip Report: The Role of Military in Community Peace Building in the District of Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir

•May 21, 2012 • 1 Comment
  1. Introduction

The purpose of this trip report is to provide a summary of activities on community peace building conducted by the military settling in the district of Baramulla, northern Jammu and Kashmir State. The material was gathered during interviews and meetings with several stakeholders, such as militaries and elementary school teachers working in peace building, as well as with civilians, and university and school students. Baramulla is one of the 22 districts in Jammu and Kashmir. While Uri is a town on the river Jhelum in the Baramulla district, which is very near the de-facto Pakistan border. Uri and Baramulla sub-districts are located in one corner of the Jammu and Kashmir. To get from Srinagar to Uri, it takes a five-hour journey in private operator-run vehicles.

Trends in Jammu and Kashmir suggest that this northern district of India is likely to emerge as a ground for the recruitment and training of terrorist elements. The biggest threat facing Kashmir is terrorism. Given the fact that almost three fourth of the Kashmiri population is under 33 years old, the effort to overcome the possibility of Kashmir emerging as a recruiting ground for terrorists, by recruiting unemployed Kashmiri youths to involve in terrorism, is extremely important. This is especially important in Kashmir where 48 per cent of youth are unemployed.[1] For this reason, apart from building intelligence to tackle the threat, long-term community peace building is imperative to ensure the elimination of joining terrorism among the youth. In addition, an empowered, trained, and skilled youth force can be an important agent for positive change and economic growth, while a frustrated, unemployed youth population can serve as a fuse for violence.

  1. Military and Community Peace Building

The Indian army has been waging a long struggle in the state of Jammu and Kashmir to win over the people, although reports of human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir by the Indian military personnel are widely cited. The situation in the state is challenging; the army in the process of defending people has emerged as a source of uneasiness and common people distancing themselves from the army have suspected as supporting terrorists. Conventionally, the military has been trained to fight enemies and not for protecting its own population. These situations have created certain trauma among the people in the presence of military. Since the operational dynamics of the military has changed, given the realities in Jammu and Kashmir, community-building program could contribute in addressing the loophole.

However, no other dimension of the Jammu and Kashmir issue requires immediate attention than bridging this gap between the people and military. Because the success or failure of the various peace plans, economic proposals, and strategic doctrines will be determined by the equations shared between the local population and the army personnel. Fortunately, this notion has been viewed by the military in Baramulla as an effective strategy to win over the people. In this process it has experimented with a variety of strategic solutions, one is through community building.

While the strategic significance of this region and certain negative developments have been highlighted in the previous section, there have also been a few positive developments in the last few years. At least two encouraging developments are worth mentioning – decline in militancy and greater gross-LoC movement of divided families. While militancy reached a peak in the late 1990s in this region, in the last few years, it has been gradually dying out. Baramulla is thus, moving gradually towards a post-conflict environment. Continue reading ‘Field Trip Report: The Role of Military in Community Peace Building in the District of Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir’

Global Power Shift and its Impact on the Stability of the World Order

•May 21, 2012 • Leave a Comment


In today’s twenty-first century, a global power shift emerged as a tremendous issue in international politics. We are now experiencing two tectonic power shifts, one is power transition from West to East and the other is the shift from all governments to the non-governmental or non-state actors, known as the rise of the rests. This new century will also see China and India, emerging as world powers. However, this rise of the rests produces many good things but also many problems – and the world is not yet equipped to tackle all of them.

Introduction

In September 1990, the end of Cold War allowed the reunification of Germany and the elimination of the enmity which the West and the Soviet Union had confronted one another for some 45 years. One super power remained, the liberal democracies of the West thought had triumphed, and history was at an end.[1]

Today, the international security environment is witnessing the economic growth of countries such as China, India, Brazil, Russia, South Africa, and many others. This used to be called among policy makers and academics as the era of ‘the rise of the rest’, a tectonic power shift from the developed Western states to Asia led by China and India.[2] We are experiencing a new era of world history, completely different with what we see in the last two hundred years.

According to Joseph Nye, what happen in the twenty first century is that there are two great power shifts; one is the shift from states, which means that there are power transition from west to east, and the other is the shift from all governments to the non-governmental or non-state actors. The shift away from all governments, whether in Asia, America, or Europe, to the non-governmental or non-state actors are going to happen because of the enormous progress of an information technology, which means that the barriers to entry in playing a major role in international politics is greatly diminished. It is now very cheap for anybody with access to skype or facebook, for example, to communicate around the world. What we see in power diffusion leads to non-state actors, who can do things they could not do, some are very good like Oxfam, and some are very bad like Al-Qaeda and also to support power individuals as we saw in the case of Wikileaks. However, these two shifts power transition and power diffusion are going on simultaneously.

There are two points about the shift of power transition; first is the era of the end of western domination of world history (not to mention the end of the west) and the return of Asia. The return of Asia means ‘the return to the norm’, given the fact that since the year 1 A.D. to the year 1820 A.D., the two largest economies in the world were consistently China and India. And only in the last two hundred years first Europe took off then America came along. The evidence comes from Goldman Sachs’ studies, which show that by the year 2050, there are four largest economy; namely China, India, the United States, and then Japan.

Explosive rates of population and economic growth in Asian states are indicators of a new world order in which power will be more dispersed. This is of course contradictory to the Malthusian proposition, which argues that population tends to increase faster than the supply of food available for its needs.[3] This fact likely gives us an assumption that society’s fertility would also lead to economic progress.

This power shift is generating a new global landscape that will have a significant impact on global world order, which also means that a multipolar world is in the making. By all accounts, today’s multipolar world is not simply a result of the rise of other states and organizations or of the failures and follies of U.S. policy. It is also an inevitable consequence of globalization.

The Emergence of New World Order

The emerging international system is likely to be quite different from those that have preceded it. For United States historian, Will Durant in 1935, Asia had clearly been a land of promise.[4] Yet it lost most of the 20th century – even much of the second millennium, while Europe and later America shot ahead in human achievements, colonized the globe and took control of the world economy. When we look at Asia in the 1800s, it was more than half of the world population and had more than half of the world products, which in 1900s was down into 20% of the world products mainly because of the industrial revolution in America and Europe. Consequently, there was a multipolar order run by a collection of European governments, with constantly shifting alliances, rivalries, miscalculations, and wars. Then came the bipolar duopoly of the Cold War, more stable in many ways, but with the superpowers reacting and overreacting to each other’s every move. Since 1991, we have lived under American imperium, a unipolar world in which the open global economy has expanded and accelerated dramatically.

And now in the twenty first century, we are seeing Asia returning to proportion of world products consisting of shared world power population and this expansion is now driving the next change in the nature of international order and this sometimes called the rise of China and India.  Already the top exporting nation and second largest economy, China is expected to overtake the United States in terms of economic output in 20 to 30 years’ time. Besides its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), China’s leading role is evident in the G20 and G77 groupings.

In regards to the rise of China, Francis Fukuyama argues, different with the rivals of the US in the 20th century, China for America is a very difficult country to deal with because it does not have a universalistic ideology. It legitimates itself on the basis of its ability to grow rapidly and on the basis of Chinese nationalism, which is a desire of China to reoccupy a kind of respected place in the world that used to have a priority of an economy with Europe in the 19th century. But unlike the former Soviet Union, they are not going to be sending a military to Central America simply to create trouble in America’s backyard.

The reason is that Chinese all over the world is for commercial reason so they want to pursue deals, and therefore they want to protect those economic interests possibly and excessively in a mercantilistic way. However, according to Fukuyama, China is probably going to be much more like a nineteenth century great power, with strong nationalistic, strong national interest but does not have a universal doctrine that they want to impose on the rest of the world.
Continue reading ‘Global Power Shift and its Impact on the Stability of the World Order’

Tablighi Jamaat Movement: Ideology and Organization

•January 22, 2012 • 2 Comments

Photo Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/76/2009_Malaysian_Tablighi_Ijtema.jpg/300px-2009_Malaysian_Tablighi_Ijtema.jpg

1. Introduction

This paper sets out to examine the history, ideology, and the organizational perspective of the Tablighi Jamaat movement, an Islamic movement that has been considered by many as the world’s largest transnational Islamic movement.[1] Today, the Tablighi Jamaat is a visible presence all over the world and has expanded its network even in the remote location and distance from other major population centers. This movement gradually expands from local to national to a transnational movement and now it is operating in 150 countries with significant influence in many majority Muslim countries as well as among Muslim immigrants in Western and Eastern Europe and North America.

Given the growing intensification of transnational religious networks, it is becoming increasingly necessary to study the concept of motivation in different religious movements.[2] This concept has led me to take an interest in the concept of commitment, and more specifically that of organizational commitment in the Tablighi Jamaat. It seems to be particularly interesting to analyze it in the ideology of the movement, which spurs its activities. From this standpoint, Tablighi Jamaat can be held up as an outstanding example.

This paper is, thus, organized as follows. We outline the interlinked primary resources, such as historical background, objectives, and ideology, which are necessary preconditions for a movement to sustain and expand. These preconditions are observed in order to be in line with the definition of social movement described by MSA Rao, in which he said that a social movement is an organized attempt on the part of a section of society to bring about either partial or total change in society through collective mobilization based on ideology.[3]

The second section will find out the organizational structure that drive the Tablighi Jamaat movement since an observation of the organizational perspectives is essential for understanding its survival and achievements. This section will highlight the organizational theories corresponding to this movement. This section thus explores the organization and structure of the jamaat, and how does it become a successful transnational movement.

2. Tablighi Jamaat Movement: History and Ideology

2.1. The Genesis of the Movement

Tablighi Jamaat literally means a “conveying group”. It is an apolitical Islamic religious movement whose primary aim is to bring about reforms into Muslim individuals. As a Sufi-background movement, this organization turns its back on political activity and concentrates on devotional life. Yet, it emphasizes the centrality of da’wa in terms of missionary duty. Continue reading ‘Tablighi Jamaat Movement: Ideology and Organization’

Maintaining Peace with Civilian Participation: Aceh’s Experience

•December 16, 2011 • 3 Comments

Photo source: http://www.acehinitiatives.org/aceh-green-initiatives.html

This paper examines the role of civilian participation in Post-Helsinki Aceh. In terms of local, national, and international cooperation, the case of Aceh in the restoration period after a long asymmetric conflict was an unprecedented success as a whole. This is partly due to active participation of all stakeholders to the peace building process supporting to implement the unfinished key provisions contained the Memorandum of Understanding.

Introduction

This paper examines the role of civilian participation and its significance in the maintenance of peace in Aceh after long-standing warfare. The role of comprehensive peace agreement, the so-called The Helsinki Accord, and participation towards peace will be examined through the case of Aceh from 2006 onwards.

First, I would like to begin with the brief background of the conflict. Then, outline the phases of peace process in Aceh. Thirdly, the post-conflict reconstruction efforts and the role of both political and civilian participation will be conducted. Finally, based on the role of civilian participation, I try to draw some few lessons taken from the case of Aceh where people participation can also significantly contribute to the economic development of the region.

Background of the Issue

Aceh is an Indonesian province located at the northern tip of Sumatra Island, at the westernmost of the Indonesian archipelago. Since Indonesia’s independence in August 1945, the province of Aceh has often been described as a centre of resistance against the central government in Jakarta. Conflict in Aceh had continued for more than five decades.  It is a conflict prolonged by unresolved structural causes that cannot be won militarily.

The conflict was initiated by the Darul Islam (DI) uprising in 1953, demanded the establishment of an Islamic state of Indonesia. However, the DI rebellion lasted in 1961 after the promise of the GoI to give a special autonomy status for Aceh. But the conflict again came up when the region and the promise were neglected. As a result, another insurgency emerged in 1967, in the form of freedom movement led by the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) that directly challenged the territorial integrity of the country. Continue reading ‘Maintaining Peace with Civilian Participation: Aceh’s Experience’

Rabindranath Tagore: An Analysis of Indian Philosophy of Education vis-à-vis the Western

•November 29, 2011 • 3 Comments

This paper probes the link between western approach to education in India and Tagore’s educational view. The focus of this paper is on the thought of Rabindranath Tagore, especially in his educational ideas. Thus, this paper attempts to perceive the approaches and the values in two gigantic educational philosophies, education system from the West and East that is Tagore’s. Here, I use the comparative methodology to analyze Tagore’s educational philosophy vis-à-vis western educational philosophy. The culture and tradition of the society itself had shaped in development of both philosophies, revealed how far these disciplines are contrast to each other. To accomplish this I will first look at the educational philosophies of these two major international educational players in the history of India. The following comparative analysis will be emphasized on several aspects, namely the originality, principles, aims, medium of learning, distribution of knowledge, and harmonization of national visions.

Introduction

Rabindranath Tagore was a prominent poet and profound thinker. He was born in Calcutta on 6 May 1860. Although he was not educated in any university, he was a clearly a man of learning. He had his own original ideas about education, which led him to establish an educational institution named Vishva Bharati in Shantiniketan with the intention of re-opening the channel of communication between the East and the West. He travelled extensively in different countries of the world, and was a successful mediator between the Eastern and Western cultures.

It has been generally accepted that different places have their own culture and tradition. Generally, Western philosophy of education comprises two schools, traditional and modern. It has its roots in Athens, Rome and Judeo-Christianity, whilst Tagore’s philosophy of education draws its inspiration from ancient Indian philosophy of education. However, it could be said that Tagore’s philosophy of education may become a representation of the Eastern philosophy apart from others like Islam, Confucianism, Taoism, and Mahayana Buddhism. By looking on Western countries and India, both countries have distinct differences in their ways of developing and shaping an individual, in terms of skills and attitudes. Thus, different cultures will have different philosophies, which results in different ways of doing things, especially in educating the next generation.

Western Education in India

Philosophy of education developed by the West was shaped through philosophical thought, which manifested through an idea characterized by Materialism, Idealism, Secularism, and Rationalism. This philosophical thinking, however, affected the concept, interpretation and the definition of the knowledge itself. Rene Descartes, for instance, uses ratio as the sole criteria to measure the truth. Other western philosophers, such as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, Martin Heidegger, Emilio Betti, and Hans-Georg Gadammer, among others, also emphasize the use of ratio and the five senses as their source of knowledge, by which it creates a variety stream of philosophies and thoughts, such as empiricism, humanism, capitalism, existentialism, relativism, atheism, and many others that profoundly affect a number of disciplines, such as philosophy, science, sociology, psychology, politics, economics, and so on. Continue reading ‘Rabindranath Tagore: An Analysis of Indian Philosophy of Education vis-à-vis the Western’

John Paul Lederach

•April 13, 2011 • Leave a Comment

John Paul Lederach is a professor of Sociology and Conflict Studies at Eastern Mennonite University. He is the founding director of EMU’s Conflict Transformation Program and its associated Institute for Justice and Peacebuilding. Dr. Lederach has extensive experience as a peacebuilding practitioner, trainer, and consultant throughout Latin America, Africa, and the U.S. He has pioneered in developing elicitive methods of conflict resolution training and practice, and is a widely published theorist in both English and Spanish. He has been at EMU since 1990.
Source: http://www.beyondintractability.org/action/author.jsp?id=719